Point Group D7



D7 E 2C7 2(C7)2 2(C7)3 7C'2
A1 1 1 1 1 1
A2 1 1 1 1 -1
E1 2 2cos(2π/7) 2cos(4π/7) 2cos(6π/7) 0
E2 2 2cos(4π/7) 2cos(6π/7) 2cos(2π/7) 0
E3 2 2cos(6π/7) 2cos(2π/7) 2cos(4π/7) 0


Additional information

Number of symmetry elements h = 14
Number of classes, irreps n = 5
Abelian group no
Optical Isomerism (Chirality) yes
Polar no
Parity no


Reduce representation to irreducible representations


E 2C7 2(C7)2 2(C7)3 7C'2



Genrate representation from irreducible representations


A1 A2 E1 E2 E3




Direct products of irreducible representations


Binary products
A1 A2 E1 E2 E3
A1 A1
A2 A2A1
E1 E1E1A1⊕A2⊕E2
E2 E2E2E1⊕E3A1⊕A2⊕E3
E3 E3E3E2⊕E3E1⊕E2A1⊕A2⊕E1

Ternary Products
Quaternary Products



Symmetric powers [Γn] of degenerate irreducible representations
Vibrational overtones


irrep 2] 3] 4] 5] 6]
E1 A1⊕E2E1⊕E3A1⊕E2⊕E3E1⊕E2⊕E3A1⊕E1⊕E2⊕E3More
E2 A1⊕E3E1⊕E2A1⊕E1⊕E3E1⊕E2⊕E3A1⊕E1⊕E2⊕E3More
E3 A1⊕E1E2⊕E3A1⊕E1⊕E2E1⊕E2⊕E3A1⊕E1⊕E2⊕E3More



Spherical harmonics and Multipoles
Symmetric Powers of Γxyz


Spherical Harmonics Yl / Multipole Symmetric Power [Γl(xyz)]
l 2l+1 Multipole Symmetry Rank l(xyz)]
s (l=0) 1 Monopole A1 1 A1
p (l=1) 3 Dipole A2⊕E1 3 A2⊕E1
d (l=2) 5 Quadrupole A1⊕E1⊕E2 6 2A1⊕E1⊕E2
f (l=3) 7 Octupole A2⊕E1⊕E2⊕E3 10 2A2⊕2E1⊕E2⊕E3
g (l=4) 9 Hexadecapole A1⊕E1⊕E2⊕2E3 15 3A1⊕2E1⊕2E2⊕2E3
h (l=5) 11 Dotricontapole A2⊕E1⊕2E2⊕2E3 21 3A2⊕3E1⊕3E2⊕3E3
i (l=6) 13 Tetrahexacontapole A1⊕2E1⊕2E2⊕2E3 28 4A1⊕4E1⊕4E2⊕4E3
j (l=7) 15 Octacosahectapole A1⊕2A2⊕2E1⊕2E2⊕2E3 36 A1⊕5A2⊕5E1⊕5E2⊕5E3
k (l=8) 17 256-pole 2A1⊕A2⊕3E1⊕2E2⊕2E3 45 6A1⊕A2⊕7E1⊕6E2⊕6E3
l (l=9) 19 512-pole A1⊕2A2⊕3E1⊕3E2⊕2E3 55 2A1⊕7A2⊕8E1⊕8E2⊕7E3
m (l=10) 21 1024-pole 2A1⊕A2⊕3E1⊕3E2⊕3E3 66 8A1⊕2A2⊕10E1⊕9E2⊕9E3
n (l=11) 23 2048-pole A1⊕2A2⊕3E1⊕3E2⊕4E3 78 3A1⊕9A2⊕11E1⊕11E2⊕11E3
o (l=12) 25 4096-pole 2A1⊕A2⊕3E1⊕4E2⊕4E3 91 10A1⊕3A2⊕13E1⊕13E2⊕13E3
More

First nonvanshing multipole: Quadrupole

Further Reading

  • A. Gelessus, W. Thiel, W. Weber. J. Chem. Educ. 72 505 (1995)
    Multipoles and symmetry




Ligand Field, dn term splitting


Term symbols for electronic configurations dn
dn Term Symbols
d1 = d9 2D
d2 = d8 1S, 1D, 1G, 3P, 3F
d3 = d7 2P, 2D (2), 2F, 2G, 2H, 4P, 4F
d4 = d6 1S (2), 1D (2), 1F, 1G (2), 1I, 3P (2), 3D, 3F (2), 3G, 3H, 5D
d5 2S, 2P, 2D (3), 2F (2), 2G (2), 2H, 2I, 4P, 4D, 4F, 4G, 6S


Term splitting in point group D7
L 2L+1 Term Splitting
S (L=0) 1 A1
P (L=1) 3 A2⊕E1
D (L=2) 5 A1⊕E1⊕E2
F (L=3) 7 A2⊕E1⊕E2⊕E3
G (L=4) 9 A1⊕E1⊕E2⊕2E3
H (L=5) 11 A2⊕E1⊕2E2⊕2E3
I (L=6) 13 A1⊕2E1⊕2E2⊕2E3


Last update August, 12th 2020 by A. Gelessus, Impressum, Datenschutzerklärung/DataPrivacyStatement